# Entangled Particles

Selecting which atom we use with careful attention to its excitation states can create entangled particles.  Some atoms emit two photons at a time or very closely together, one in one direction, the other in the opposite direction.  These photons also have a property that one spins or is polarized in one direction and the other always spins or is polarized at right angles to the first.  They come in pairs such that if we conduct an experiment on one to determine its orientation, the other’s orientation becomes known at once.   They are “entangled”.

## Figure 10 – Entangled Particles

All of this was involved in a famous dispute between Einstein and Bohr where Einstein devised a series of thought experiments to prove quantum measurement theory defective and Bohr devised answers.

The weirdness, if you want to call it that, is the premise that the act of measurement of one actually defines both of them and so one might be thousands of miles away when you measure the first and the other instantly is converted, regardless of the distance between them, to the complement of the first.   Action-at-a-distance that occurs faster than the speed of light?

Some would argue (me for instance) that this is more of a hat trick, not unlike where a machine randomly puts a quarter under one hat or the other, and always a nickel under a second one.  You don’t know in advance which contains which.  Does the discovery that one hat has a quarter actually change the other into a nickel or was it always that way?  Some would say that since it is impossible to know what is under each hat, the discovery of the quarter was determined by the act of measuring (lifting the hat) and the other coin only became a nickel at that instant.   Is this action at a distance?

It is easy to say that the measurement of the first particle only uncovers the true nature of the first particle and the deduction of the nature of the second particle is not a case of weirdness at all.   They were that way at the start.

However, this is a hotly debated subject and many consider this a real effect and a real problem.  That is, they consider the particles (which are called Einstein‑‑ Podolsky‑Rosen (EPR) pairs) to have a happy-go-lucky existence in which the properties are undetermined until measured.   Measure the polarization of one – and the second instantly takes the other polarization.

A useful feature of entangled particles is the notion that you could encrypt data using these particles such that if anyone attempted to intercept and read them somewhere in their path, the act of reading would destroy the message.

So there you have it – Weird behavior at a distance, maybe across the universe.

Next:  Some Random Thoughts About Relativity

# Polarized Light Weirdness

The same weirdness problem arises when we pass light through polarized devices as in the figure at the left.  The devices are calcite crystals in which the light is split into two parts, a horizontal (H) and a vertical (V) channel.  If we try to send individual photons through, they go through only one channel or the other, never through both, and those that come out of the H channel are always horizontally polarized, those that come out of the V channel are always vertically polarized as we might expect.

It is possible to orient photons to other angles at the input.  One such arrangement is to adjust them polarized so that they are tilted 45 degrees right or left as illustrated in the same figure.   If we orient the input to 45 degrees, tilted right, we get half of the photons coming out the H channel and half out of the V channel, one at a time, but these are always horizontal and vertical polarized, no longer polarized at 45 degrees right.

Now comes the weird part.  See the figure at the left.  If we put a second calcite crystal in line with the first one, but reversed so that the H channel output of the first goes into the H channel of the second and the V channel output of the first goes into the V channel of the second, we expect the output to consist of one photon at a time (and it is), but since the first crystal only outputs horizontal or vertical polarized photons we expect only horizontal or vertical polarized photons out of the second crystal.

## Quantum Weirdness at work.

However, if we test the polarization of the output, we find that the photons coming out are oriented to 45 degrees right, exactly like the input.  Individual photons go in at 45 degrees right at the input, are still individual photons but horizontal or vertical oriented in the middle, but come out oriented 45 degrees right again at the output!  Somehow the two channels combine as if the individual photons go through both channels at the same time, despite rigorous testing that detects only one at a time.  Quantum Weirdness at work.

The polarization problem, like the double slit problem, is often called a quantum measurement problem.  An often-quoted theory is that the photon does go both ways, but any attempt to detect/measure one of the paths disturbs the photon such that the measurement results in a change in the path of the photon.

My theory reafferms the idea that it does go both ways, but in a manner you would not expect.  We will get to that later.  Next I want to mention  Quantum Weirdness in Glass